Documents Pertinent to the Topic (most recent posts at bottom):
- American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine Consensus Report on Potential Bioeffects of Diagnostic Ultrasound
Key point: Ultrasound experts agree that long-term effects are not known.
- Fetal Ultrasound: Mechanical Effects
Key point: Acoustic threshold that could damage a fetus has not been established.
- Fetal Doppler: How to Keep it Safe?
Key point: Studies are all based on pre-1992 machines when the limits were lower.
- Safety Assurance in Obstetrical Ultrasound
Key point: Intensity limits were increased in 1992 with little or no subsequent research.
- Ultrasound is Not Unsound, But Safety is an Issue
Key point: We do not know that modern ultrasound devices are safe.
- Pulse Intensity: Fetal Eye vs Eye Following Birth
Key point: The limit for examining the eye is 12% of what is allowed for the eye of a fetus.
- Quantification of Risk from Fetal Exposure to Diagnostic Ultrasound
Key Point: Fetus is more at risk from thermal than from non-thermal effects.
- Prenatal Exposure to Ultrasound Waves Impacts Neuronal Migration in Mice
Key point: Ultrasound exposure caused brain abnormalities in embryonic mice.
- Effects of Repeated Prenatal Ultrasound Examinations on Childhood Outcome Up to 8 Years of Age: Follow-Up of a Randomised Controlled Trial
Key point: Differences attributed to multiple late-term ultrasounds disappeared by age 8.
- Epidemiological Prenatal Ultrasound Studies
Key point: No association found with malignancies, possible association with left-handedness.
- Prenatal Ultrasound Scanning and the Risk of Schizophrenia and other Psychoses
Key point: No clear associations between prenatal ultrasound exposure and psychoses.
- Antenatal Ultrasound and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders
Key point: Study of 755 children with and without ASD shows possible 2nd trimester link.
- Ultrasound is safe… right?
Key point: Evidence of the need for improved education on obstetric ultrasound safety.
- Medical and Non-Medical Protection Standards for Ultrasound and Infrasound
Key point: Reservations about the US and European standards for ultrasound exposure.
- Overview of Experimental Studies of Biological Effects of Medical Ultrasound Caused by Gas Body Activation and Inertial Cavitation
Key point: Concern about cavitation in fluids and other mechanical effects of ultrasound.
- A Calibration Study of Therapeutic Ultrasound Units
Key point: More than one-third of the therapeutic ultrasound machines tested were operating outside of limits. (Prenatal viewing is with diagnostic, not therapeutic, ultrasound machines)
- Prenatal ultrasound devices can expose fetuses to pulse intensities above the recommended limits.
Key point: There are ultrasound devices that are not being operated within FDA limits.
- Effects of Shear Stress on Endothelial Cells: Possible Relevance for Ultrasound Applications
Key point: Need for research into shear stresses
- Checking Out the Repair History of an Ultrasound Machine
Key point: Quality problems in the ultrasound resale market.
- The Ultrasound Trader’s Seller Guide
Key point: Some resell companies do not offer a valid warranty on ultrasounds.
- Radiation Overdoses Point Out Dangers of CT Scans
Key point: Errors are possible. Hospitals and licensed technicians erred dramatically in CT scanning.
- Genetic Heritability and Shared Environmental Factors Among Twin Pairs With Autism
Key point: 2011 study concludes environment during gestation or shortly after is the biggest factor.
- The Risk of Exposure to Diagnostic Ultrasound in Postnatal Subjects –
Key point: Research shows significant temperature changes in post-natal human tissue with only seconds of exposure to diagnostic ultrasound.
- Acceleration of Tibial Fracture-Healing by Non-Invasive, Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound
Key point: Generation of new bone and cartilage cells in healing fractures uses 1/3 the intensity of ultrasound allowed in fetal imaging.
- Potential Teratogenic Effects of Ultrasound on Corticogenesis: Implications for Autism
Key point: Neurologist details potential effects of ultrasound on fetal brain development.
- Above Genetics: Lessons from Cerebral Development in Autism
Key point: How the environment and genetics combine to give rise to autism.
- Intramembrane Cavitation as a Unifying Mechanism for Ultrasound-Induced Bioeffects
Key point: Ultrasound shown to cause damage to live tissue at the cellular level.
- Intracranial Temperature Elevation from Diagnostic Ultrasound
Key point: Ultrasound output display can underestimate the cranial temperature increase.
- Trends in prenatal ultrasound use in the United States: 1995 to 2006
Key point: Number of ultrasounds per pregnancy continues to increase.
- Disrupted Neural Synchronization in Toddlers with Autism
Key point: Weak connectivity between brain hemispheres in children with autism.
- FDA Medical Devices Safety Alert: Fetal Keepsake Videos
Key point: FDA alert about non-medical ultrasound videos cites possible physical effects.
- FDA Consumer Update: Doppler Ultrasound Heartbeat Monitors
Key point: FDA warns consumers that non-medical use of doppler ultrasound heartbeat monitors risks harming the fetus.
- The Risk of Exposure to Diagnostic Ultrasound in Postnatal Subjects: Thermal Effects
Key point: Authors relate that limit not based on safety considerations.
- Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adolescents Born Weighing <2000 Grams
Key point: Autism rate 5 times as high in low-birth-weight infants. Most neonatals receive postnatal head ultrasounds.
- Ultrasound Exposure of the Foetal Chick Brain: Effects on Learning and Memory
Key point: Memory and learning functions impaired in chicks exposed to Doppler.
- Increased Neuron Number and Head Size in Autism
Key point: Head enlargement, if any, usually develops after infancy.
- Neuron Number and Size in Prefrontal Cortex of Children with Autism
Key point: Autistic males tested have many more neurons in the prefrontal cortex.
- High Incidence of Defective Ultrasound Transducers in Use in Routine Clinical Practice
Key point: 40% of 676 hospital ultrasound transducers tested were malfunctioning.
- Ultrasound Transducer Function: Annual Testing Is Not Sufficient
Key point: 30% of calibrated ultrasound transducers failed within a year.
- CDC Estimates 1 in 88 Children in United States Has Been Identified As Having An Autism Spectrum Disorder
Key point: CDC rate of autism increase matches rate of ultrasound increase.
- Maternal Metabolic Conditions and Risk for Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Key point: Children of obese mothers have a higher rate of autism.
- Maternal Obesity and Autism: Ultrasound probe may be a factor.
Key point: Ultrasound probe could be the link in obesity and autism.
- Are Prenatal Ultrasound Scans Associated with the Autism Phenotype? Follow-up of a Randomised Controlled Trial
Key point: “New” Australian study based on low-intensity ultrasound of 1989 shows no connection to autism.
- Proliferation of Prenatal Ultrasonography
Key point: Increase in number of ultrasounds per pregnancy unwarranted.
- Is Maternal Influenza or Fever During Pregnancy Associated with Autism or Developmental Delays?
Key point: Rise in fetal temperature doubles the rate of autism.
- Ultrasound and Autism: Association, Link or Coincidence?
Key point: Review of studies shows lack of direct evidence.
- The ALARA Principle and Sonography
Key point: Ultrasound expert warns of potential tragic effects of ultrasound.
- Autism Prevalence Time Trends, Risk Factors & Prenatal Ultrasound
Key point: Ultrasound-induced temperature increase is a probable cause of autism.
- Intrauterine Effects of Ultrasound: Animal Studies
Key point: Absence of thermal effect translates to no measurable risk.
- Effect of Fetal Exposure to Ultrasound on the Behavior of the Adult Mouse
Key point: Prenatal exposure to ultrasound impaired brain function in mice.
- Clinical End Users Worldwide Show Poor Knowledge Regarding Safety Issues of Ultrasound During Pregnancy
Key point: Only 27% of ultrasound operators knew where TI/MI displays were on their device.
- Autism After Infection, Febrile Episodes, and Antibiotic Use During Pregnancy: An Exploratory Study
Key point: Prolonged fever during gestation tripled risk of ASD.
- Reassessment of Teratogenic Risk from Antenatal Ultrasound
Key Point: Possible fetal damage from ultrasound within approved exposure range.
- Antipurinergic Therapy Corrects the Autism-Like Features in the Poly(IC) Mouse Model
Key Point: Explanation of the nature of autistic brain cells leads to promising treatment.
- Influence of Sonographic Examination on Embryo Villi during Early Pregnancy
Key Point: Transvaginal ultrasound damages embryos.
- Patches of Disorganization in the Neocortex of Children with Autism
Key Point: Characteristic autistic brain defect formed during gestation.
- Changing Trends of Childhood Disability, 2001-2011
Key Point: Neurodevelopmental disabilities increasing while physical disabilities decreasing.
- Prenatal Exposure to Ultrasound Affects Learning and Memory in Young Rats
Key Point: Ultrasound Affects Learning and Memory in Young Rats
- Long-term Effects of Diagnostic Ultrasound during Fetal Period on Postnatal Development and Adult Behavior of Mouse.
Key Point: High Susceptibility of Early Fetal Brain to Detrimental Changes by Ultrasound
- Severity of ASD Symptoms and Their Correlation with the Presence of Copy Number Variations and Exposure to First Trimester Ultrasound (2016)
Key Point: Severity of autism symptoms correlates with 1st trimester scan.
- Fetal Thermal Effects of Diagnostic Ultrasound (2008)
Key Point: Thermal Effects Apparent Before 8-fold Intensity Increase